On July 12, 1957, this was the day recorded in the annals of Qingdao. At noon at 12:00, at the Liuting Military Airport in Qingdao, the people of Qingdao ushered in the first and only time to usher in the founder of New China—Mao Zedong. At 1 pm, accompanied by Shu Yitong, Mao Zedong walked into the hotel with a smile and a smile. After Mao Zedong came to youth, the central leaders Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Chen Yun, Deng Xiaoping, Li Xiannian, Peng Zhen, etc. successively rallied in Qingdao to discuss the National Economic Plan with Mao Zedong. They all live in the Badaguan Retreat.
Set up a small gazebo "meeting place"
On the morning of July 13, Mao Zedong, accompanied by the staff, came to the Second Beach. The second small gazebo in the front row on the left side of the door is the site of the Qingdao Conference of the CPC Central Committee. The venue is chosen here because the other leaders of the central government live near the Badaguan rehabilitation area, which is convenient for meetings. In addition, Mao Zedong likes swimming. Here he can swim after a meeting and after a swim. After obtaining the consent of Mao Zedong, the staff will temporarily set up a small gazebo on the shore of the second beach.
In order to reduce the external disturbance to the venue without losing the unique scenery of the blue sky, beach and clear water of the beach, the guards came up with a brilliant idea, hanging bamboo curtains on the four sides of the pavilion, the outside can not see the inside, the inside However, people can clearly see the scenery outside through the gaps of bamboo curtains, just like being in the nature of "Sky Light Cloud Shadow", it is not interesting.
The first thing Mao Zedong did after staying at the Welcome Hotel was to personally check out the venue. He personally instructed the staff to reorganize the rattan chairs and rattan tables in the gazebo and put them into a family living room style.
In this small pavilion, almost all the top leaders of the CPC Central Committee have been gathered. Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun, Li Xiannian, Peng Zhen, Luo Ruiqing, etc. have talked here several times and made national plans.
On the morning of July 17, Premier Zhou Enlai, Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Secretariat, and Mayor Peng Zhen of Beijing Municipality made a report to the graduates of the capital's colleges and universities. National leaders flew to Qingdao. On the same day, Vice President Zhu De also arrived.
At 1 pm, members of the Politburo of the Central Committee successively entered small gazebos, sitting around Mao Zedong's rattan chair, and held a meeting of the Politburo of the Central Political Bureau in Qingdao.
Hosted the Qingdao Conference of the CPC Central Committee
The Qingdao meeting of the CPC Central Committee includes the Politburo Standing Committee meeting, Politburo meeting, and the first secretary meeting of some provincial and municipal Party committees, a total of 12 times. These meetings were discussed in the article "The Situation of the Summer of 1957" drafted by Mao Zedong, and Mao Zedong revised it according to the main points discussed in the meeting. This article is a further deployment of the anti-rightist struggle.
Mao Zedong held a meeting of the Politburo and the first secretary of some provincial and municipal party committees in Qingdao. Most of the leaders of the Qingdao municipal party committee were not eligible to participate. However, the article "The Situation of the Summer of 1957" by Mao Zedong was sent to the Qingdao Municipal Party Committee for the opinions of the leaders of the Municipal Party Committee.
On July 30, the meetings of the First Secretary of some provincial and municipal Party committees ended. The article "The Situation of the Summer of 1957", which was drafted by Mao Zedong in Qingdao, was discussed and revised many times, and was finalized after writing the tenth draft. Mao Zedong instructed Deng Xiaoping, "This is the final version, please submit it to the Politburo for approval. If there is any amendment, please inform. If there is no amendment, it can be issued."
After Deng Xiaoping submitted to the Politburo for approval, this article was distributed to the entire party in Qingdao and later included in the fifth volume of Selected Works of Mao Zedong. The article raised the class struggle to a new theoretical height, which caused this conference to have a significant impact on later history. The article also contains some incisive expositions, for example: "Our goal is to create a centralized and democratic, disciplined and free, unified will, personal comfort, lively, and so on. This political situation is conducive to the socialist revolution and socialist construction. It is easier to overcome difficulties and build our country's modern industry and modern agriculture faster. The party and the country are more consolidated and able to withstand risks. "This is Mao Zedong since the 1995 Over the past six years, he has achieved important results in exploring what kind of socialist country to build politically.
Take a dip in the second beach
At 4 pm on July 16th, Mao Zedong took a bus to the Second Beach and took a first swim in the sea in Qingdao.
Before swimming, Mao Zedong did not enter the locker room, but put a bed on the beach and raised a sun umbrella. He slowly took off his clothes, put it on the bed, and stared into the sea with a stance of challenge. When he reached the waist with water, he drank a few waters on his body, and then leaned forward and swam forward. Mao Zedong's backstroke swims very fast and his swimming skills are very high. He sometimes swims sideways, sometimes backstrokes, and sometimes lies supine on the water. He swam in the water for nearly an hour. When he was tired, he lay on his back on the water, stretched his limbs, and took a sun bath. .
Mao Zedong swims in the Second Beach six times, and he swims for about an hour each time. Zhu De, Wu Lanfu, Shu Tong, Jiang Qing, Li Ne, Li Min, Mao Yuanxin, etc. accompanied the swim.
Visit Xiao Jinguang's house
Daughter Li Na once recalled that his father Mao Zedong rarely ate at other people's homes, which was also a characteristic of his father. However, in 1957, their family went to the Navy Commander General Xiao Jinguang to have a family banquet in his apartment in Qingdao. This was an exception for her father, and she was very impressed with it.
It turned out that August 1st was the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. 30 years is Daqing, the Central Military Commission decided that the navy will hold a maritime parade in Qingdao and accept the review by the central leadership. On the eve of the Army Building Festival, Xiao Jinguang came to the Qingdao base to inspect the preparations for the parade at sea. When visiting Mao Zedong to visit Mao Zedong, he briefly reported on the construction of the Qingdao base and the preparations for the parade on the sea. Xiao Jinguang said that after nearly eight years of construction and training, the navy has made great progress in equipment, and its technical and training levels have also greatly improved. This time a marine parade was held in Qingdao, and the main naval arms of air, submarine, and fast were dispatched.
After hearing that, Mao Zedong was very happy, and immediately said that he wanted to see the Navy. Mao Zedong said to Xiao Jinguang, "Go back and tell your wife and ask her to make some dishes for me." Then, he said a few dishes: "Mash eggplant, bitter gourd fried duck, a plate of chili, a bowl of rice is just fine! This "Hunan hometown meal" expressed Mao Zedong's affirmation and cordial condolences to Xiao Jinguang for his tense work and inspection of the preparations for the parade at sea.
Comment on Fan Zhongyan's Poems
Mao Zedong commented on many poems throughout his life. In the summer of 1957, he commented on the words "Su Muzhe · Biyuntian" and "Fisherman Symphony Comes to Autumn" in Qingdao during the Northern Song Dynasty.
On the evening of August 1, returning from the dinner attended by Xiao Jinguang's family, Mao Zedong made the following comments on the above two words: "The words have gracefulness and boldness, each has its own interest, and should be read concurrently. Reading the gracefulness for a long time, tired of, We should change to the uninhibited faction. The uninhibited faction has been reading for a long time, but we are tired, so we should read the gentleness. My interest is uninhibited and does not invalidate the gracefulness. There are many desolate and beautiful words in the gracefulness. Fan Zhongyan's last two First, between the two parties of graceful and unrestrained, it can be regarded as the middle school; but basically it is graceful, both desolate and beautiful, and people don't tire of reading. The children of gracefulness are long-cherished, and the brazilian irons of the uninhibited. It ’s boring after reading for a long time. People ’s moods are complicated. The so-called complexity is the unity of opposites. People ’s moods often have opposing elements, not single, and can be analyzed. Two factions, when read by one person, sometimes like the former, sometimes like the latter, is one example. Can't sleep, humming idioms. "
Fan Zhongyan, who is famous for his sorrows before the world, and the joys of the world, has few words left after his survival. There are only five of them, all of which are essences. "The most prestigious, opened up a new realm of words, opened the prelude to frontier words, and was praised as" the word of the poor. "
The two words that Mao Zedong commented on, expressing the sorrow of the thoughts of the rural customs, and expressing the worries of the rural customs, but also the magnanimity of the poems. Therefore, Mao Zedong said that these two words are between graceful and unrestrained factions, and they can be regarded as middle factions. However, in terms of their subject matter, they are narrower. They mainly write the worries of the prisoner and the sadness of the long border, and write the worries of sadness and desolation. And beautiful, so Mao Zedong said that they are basically graceful.
Under what mood did Mao Zedong comment on these two words of Fan Zhongyan in Qingdao? From Nanjing to Qingdao, from July 12 to August 1, the time is not short. In Nanjing, Mao Zedong originally wanted to go swimming in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River, because the water there was too rapid and dangerous, and he did not get the approval of the Politburo. After coming to Qingdao, the weather was cloudy and rainy. Mao Zedong caught a cold and stopped swimming. On the 30th anniversary of the founding of the army, due to physical reasons, he was unable to inspect the navy and had to go to Xiao Jinguang's home in Hunan to eat his hometown meal. These factors may remind Mao Zedong of these two words by Fan Zhongyan.
Meeting with the Myanmar delegation to China
On the afternoon of July 24, a delegation of 16 visiting Myanmar delegation headed by Deqin Deng Deng, the deputy speaker of the Myanmar National Assembly, flew from Moscow to Beijing. That evening, Liu Shaoqi held a welcome banquet. At noon on the 26th, Zhou Enlai hosted a banquet to entertain them.
On the morning of August 2, the delegation was accompanied by Liu Guanyi, deputy secretary general of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, and came to Qingdao by plane to visit. On the same day, Zhou Enlai also flew to Qingdao from Beijing. At 10 o'clock that night, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai met the delegation of the Myanmar Parliament to China in the city's political consultative conference hall. After the talks, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai took a group photo with the visiting delegation.
On August 3, the Chinese delegation left for Shanghai.
By August 4, the work of the CPC Central Committee in Qingdao had basically ended. Because Qingdao cadres did not participate in the conference hosted by Mao Zedong, some city-level cadres only participated in the ethnic work forum and maritime parade held by Zhou Enlai, so the municipal party committee asked Mao Zedong to take a group photo with local cadres for a souvenir photo. Mao Zedong agreed. At 17:00 on August 5th, the municipal party committee, municipal government, and district committees, district government officials at or above the scientific level, officers above the ranks of majors in the Youth Corps, and representatives of the National People ’s Congress and ethnic minorities in Qinghai were divided into three parts. The stands on the east side of the north gate of the stadium are neatly arranged, waiting quietly. At 17:30, the stadium gate slowly opened, and party and state leaders such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai slowly entered the stadium. There was a thunderous applause in the stadium and it lasted.
Five rides around the city
When Mao Zedong was in Qingdao, he always asked the driver to drive more roads every time he went out in order to watch the street view, and he had a special trip to explore the city 5 times.
He often looked sideways at the window with interest: red tiles, green trees, blue sea and blue sky. Among the winding hillsides, classical, modern, oriental, western, distinctive, and distinctive styles of buildings are dotted with pearls and mosaics, forming a magnificent "World Architecture Museum" . Cedar, Lagerstroemia indica, Peach, Haitang, and Indus are all clustered along winding roads. Mao Zedong has said more than once, "Here it is!"
Farewell Qingdao staff
On the morning of August 11, Mao Zedong and the staff around him were preparing to leave. Mao Zedong ordered: return to Beijing for breakfast. Also ordered: Do not alarm those Qingdao staff who are sleeping. In fact, such a secret cannot be kept. Everyone heard that Chairman Mao was leaving, and everyone got up. When Mao Zedong learned about it, he ordered that he immediately meet all the Qingdao staff. Everyone is here. Mao Zedong said, "I'm going back to Beijing and thank you." At this time, some staff members began to cry.
Mao Zedong asked, "What are you crying for? Are there any grievances?" Everyone replied: "It is not grievances, it is the chairman who wants to leave, and we are reluctant to leave."
Mao Zedong said, "Let's do this, let's take a group photo together." Then he called out Xinhua News Agency reporter Hou Bo. Unfortunately, there is no film this time. The chairman said, "There is no other way. You all report your names, and I will send a photo to each of you after I return to Beijing." Everyone applauded.
Mao Zedong spoke. Soon, Qingdao staff received a full-body photo of Mao Zedong in Zhongnanhai. The recipient's name is written on the back of each photo. Although not his own words, everyone was excited.
Mao Zedong came out of the building and stepped into the door. The car slowly started and drove out of the gate. The courtyard was surprisingly quiet. The guards and soldiers on duty at the last post all faced the direction of the car, staring in a standard upright posture for a long time.
At more than 9 o'clock, a bright black car stopped straight in front of the aircraft ramp. Mao's burly body appeared. He was wearing loose white shirts and gray trousers, and was wearing black cloth shoes. Mao Zedong smiled and shook farewell one by one with the people who saw him off, turned and boarded the ramp, walked to the top, turned back, smiled kindly, and waved his hand. take off.
After Mao Zedong left Qingdao, relevant comrades in the central government said that Chairman Mao had a good impression on Qingdao. In the future, Chairman Mao will come to Qingdao every year. To this end, the Qingdao Municipal Committee has specially renovated the welcome hotel and built a wall around the welcome hotel to form a large courtyard that now covers an area of more than 26,000 square meters. Fruit trees, flowers and various ornamental plants are planted in the courtyard.
The Qingdao Municipal Party Committee also made a special report to the central government, asking that the small gazebo where Mao Zedong meets and the place where he lived should be built into Chairman Mao's Memorial Hall. The central authorities did not approve it.
However, since then, Mao Zedong never came to Qingdao.
(Source: "Chairman Mao Zedong's Day in Qingdao" of the CPC History Research Office of the Qingdao Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China.
Editor-in-chief: Zhang Zhaoxin
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